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Early Enumclaw: 6,000 Years Ago to the Mid-1800s

Imagine living in Enumclaw without a Plateau. The Osceola Mudflow created the it 5600 years ago. And people were living here before that happened.

History of Enumclaw Index

 

Imagine living in Enumclaw without a Plateau.  The canyon-like contour of the land just east of town where the foothills suddenly begin would continue to Auburn, where it would meet Puget Sound.  That all changed in a matter of hours with the Osceola Mudflow 5600 years ago.  The river of mud turned into a lake of mud, forming the Enumclaw Plateau.  And people were living here before that happened.

Archeological finds under one Enumclaw farm date back 6000 years.1  They indicate human habitation near our town, seventy-five feet below the surface at the pre-mudflow level.  Now 6,000 years is a difficult amount of time to get your brain around.  Our town is celebrating its first centennial, or is it our 60th centennial?  Think of the Revolutionary War and the founding of our country.  6,000 years is twenty-five times as far back as that.  When was Jesus born?  People were already here for two millenia by then.  The Egyptian pyramids?  More than a thousand years before the first one, people were in our neighborhood.  They have been living here for a long time.

If that is hard to grasp, imagine living here 13,000 years ago.2   That's 130 centennials.  Glacial Period ice is still retreating from the area.  Then imagine heading toward Auburn for an elephant hunt.  Various tools on an Enumclaw Plateau site have been tentatively dated back that far.  And this is contemporary with the famous find near Sequim of a mastodon skeleton with a spear point embedded in its rib.3,4

We don't know much about the earliest peoples in the area, although advanced techniques, including DNA analysis, CT scanning, and mass spectrometers are narrowing down the time of their arrival.  It appears the ancient ancestors of our local Native Americans crossed the Beringa Land Bridge around 16,500 years ago and migrated south at least a millenium after that, either by following an ice-free corridor east of the Rockies and fanning out in all directions, or by coming down the coast on foot and in primitive boats.  We do know that sea level was about 300 feet lower at the time because of water locked up in glaciers.5

(We are making fresh history every day, but we are also continually expanding and refining our knowledge of the past.  History is not a constant.  It is not what has happened, but what we know of what has happened.)

Evidence of ancient human presence has been found in 19 archeological sites on the Enumclaw Plateau, and signs of houses were discovered at one place.  All of these 19 sites have been disturbed  and some almost completely destroyed by activity like the construction of ball fields by Southwood Elementary School and the development of a turf farm on the old Porter homestead.6  A few sites are still relatively intact, and will benefit from careful study by tribal representatives and their selected archeologists.  Of course, there are likely many more artifacts under the mudflow, and well preserved at that, but it is nearly impossible to know where to look.

One ancient artifact near here (Bonney Lake) remains in its original location (although surrounded by a housing development) and is available for all to see.  Archeologists believe the Skystone, a large boulder deposited in the last Glacial Period, was a calendar or astronomical observatory later carved by the Puyallups or their predecessors.  Various combinations of the twenty holes line up with true north and the equinoxes.7

Muckleshoot ancestors lived in and near what is present-day Enumclaw between the White and Green Rivers.  The tribe, named later for the prairie on which it was relocated, is comprised of descendents from the Duwamish and Upper Puyallups, which are branches of the Coast Salish people who inhabited a large area from the bottom of Vancouver Island, through the Puget Sound region and the Olympic Peninsula, and down the Oregon Coast.

Many of the native settlements and summer camps on the Plateau were in open spaces--manmade prairies kept clear by burning.  The area had no natural prairies, so these sites allowed plants and wildlife not commonly found here to prosper--oaks, hazelnuts, blackberries, and camas roots.  Elk preferred the open spaces for grazing, as they do today in fields adjacent to town.

In winter, ancestors of our local native population lived in villages near the rivers.  Throughout the rest of the year, they traveled widely around the Plateau and well beyond it for hunting, fishing, clamming, and gathering. On these journeys, they maintained kinship and trade relationships with others from Puget Sound to the eastern slopes of the Cascades.8  They used trails over passes, especially the Naches, to access food and other resources that weren't available here, while eastern groups, particularly the Yakama and Klickitat, came here for salmon.  No doubt they passed through Enumclaw or near it on these excursions.

This pattern of life changed dramatically in the 1800s, particularly in the decade from 1850 to 1860.

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                                           NOTES

     1.   http://www.historylink.org/index.cfm?DisplayPage=output.cfm&file_id=5095

     2.   "An as-yet unreported site approximately 70 air miles southeast of the Park [Mt Rainier National Park] on the Enumclaw Plateau . . . may eventually prove more illustrative of that early technology. There, Hedlund has tested a site where he found a lithic assemblage resting on a glacial recession till surface. The till surface has been tentatively dated geologically to about 13,000 B.P. [before present], possibly placing the site close in time to the Manis site" [near Sequim].  

"The possible relationship of the Enumclaw assemblage to the obvious bone-working orientation at Manis is intriguing. It seems reasonable to suggest that the earliest cultural pattern on the Olympic Peninsula possessed, in addition to simple stone tools, a simple bone tool inventory which, being highly perishable, doesn't often survive in the archeological record of open sites except at water-saturated sites such as Manis. Continued excavation and analysis of sites like Manis and Enumclaw is necessary in order to achieve a fuller understanding of the earliest cultural pattern(s)." 

http://www.nps.gov/history/history/online_books/olym/prehistory_ethnography/chap3.htm

     3.  "Chemical analysis of DNA and protein extracted from the spear point show that it was fashioned from mastodon bone. The hunters would have mounted the sharpened bone projectile at the tip of a wooden shaft and may have used a spear-thrower, or atlatl, to hurl it with more force. A hunter may have thrust it by hand, aiming for the heart or lungs. Mastodons weighed 4 or 5 tons and stood about 8 to 10 feet tall at the shoulder."

 http://www.oregonlive.com/environment/index.ssf/2011/10/mastodon_hunting_site_from_138.html

     4.  "A suite of Accelerated Mass Spectrometer (AMS) radiocarbon dates were reported in 2011, on the purified bone collagen extracted from the mastodon rib in which the bone point is embedded, and from two different mastodon tusk fragments. These new dates range between 13,860-13,763 B.P.

http://archaeology.about.com/od/preclovissites/qt/Manis-Mastodon.htm

     5.  http://www.giss.nasa.gov/research/briefs/gornitz_09/

http://exhibits.pacsci.org/puget_sound/graphics/ps_glaciationsm.mov

A 30-second video showing changes in Puget Sound from a freshwater lake to a saltwater sound over the past 20,000 years.

http://pugetsoundlidar.ess.washington.edu/faults/Vashon_sm.mov

http://www.boston.com/whitecoatnotes/2012/07/11/native-americans-migrated-the-new-world-three-waves-harvard-led-dna-analysis-shows/uQRQdkkqMmzSW3LaArh0tM/story.html

     6.  Location and Cultural Assessment of Archaeological Sites on the Enumclaw Plateau in the Southern Puget Sound Lowland.  An Abstract by: Gerald C. Hedlund.

http://www.alaskanartifacts.com/Enumclaw/Enumclaw_Wa.html

     7.  Skystone, a native astronomical observatory:

http://bonneylake-sumner.patch.com/articles/sky-stone-then-and-now

http://www.blscourierherald.com/news/44090877.html

     8.  http://www.muckleshoot.nsn.us/about-us/overview.aspx

 

More on Enumclaw archeological studies:

ftp://ww4.dnr.wa.gov/geology/pubs/ic107/parts/ic107_mt_rainier_guide_part1_1.pdf

 

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                        ENUMCLAW CENTENNIAL BLOG SERIES

The Histories of Enumclaw

Introduction--Enumclaw:  The First 6020 Years

Early Enumclaw:  6000 Years Ago to the Mid-1800s

Early Enumclaw:  The First Europeans Arrive

          The Adventures of Allen Porter's Wagon

Enumclaw's Early Plateau Neighbors

           Schools and Districts

Enumclaw Becomes a Town:  1879-1913

          Enumclaw Cooperatives

Incorporation through World War II:  Enumclaw from 1913-1945

          Logging and Lumber

Growth and Prosperity:  Enumclaw from 1945-2008

          Searching for a Town's Identity

Recent Past to the Present:  Enumclaw from 2008-2013

          The Limits of Growth

Enumclaw's Next Two Decades:  2013-2033

          Alternative Futures

This post is contributed by a community member. The views expressed in this blog are those of the author and do not necessarily reflect those of Patch Media Corporation. Everyone is welcome to submit a post to Patch. If you'd like to post a blog, go here to get started.

April Chan January 04, 2013 at 09:49 PM
John, my inner aspiring archaeologist is giddy with the tantalizing details you've covered here. Thank you!
Joyce Behrendt January 05, 2013 at 01:17 AM
This is fascinating to read. Thank you for writing it.
John Anderson January 05, 2013 at 01:36 AM
Thanks, April and Joyce. One of the things that tantalizes my inner archaeologist is the mass of artifacts that must lie below the mudflow. The people on the plateau at the time must have left many well preserved traces. How would one go about searching area under that preserving layer? And your farm is in a prime spot, Joyce.
Nick LaRoche January 05, 2013 at 08:55 AM
John, my name is Nick LaRoche and I have recently graduated from the University of Idaho with a degree in anthropology. It is incredible to hear that there is so much evidence in the area, as well as a good amount of support. I am curious if there are any opportunities that you may know of that would allow me to work in the field, volunteer or otherwise. I have archaeological field experience (I participated in an expedition at the Kelly Forks work station in Northwest Idaho along side Dr. Lee Sappington), and I would love to participate in something close to home. If there is any information or websites regarding archaeology in Enumclaw and the surrounding area I would be excited to hear about it. Thanks, Nick
John Anderson January 05, 2013 at 11:47 PM
Thanks for your interest, Nick. I am not familiar with any current archaeological research projects near here, but will let you know if I hear of anything. Much of the work on the Plateau, including Native American sites, the coal mining ghost town of Franklin, and the Bonney Lake Skystone, was done by Gerald Hedlund from Green River Community College. There is much to be studied here around Enumclaw. Careful excavation and handling by professional research teams is the best way to preserve the artifacts and assure that they end up in the right hands. As far as I know, Western Washington in Bellingham and Willamette in Salem are the only universities in the northwest offering archaeology degrees, so they might be places that are doing field work. The best first contact would be the Muckleshoot tribe.
dexterjibs January 07, 2013 at 04:51 AM
Fascinating stuff, John. Thank you.
John Anderson January 07, 2013 at 05:59 AM
Thanks for reading, Dexter. Next one will include a story about our first pioneer, Allen Porter. He came in a wagon in 1853. What a surprise to find that actual wagon yesterday!
Susan Etchey January 09, 2013 at 02:11 AM
Love it!! What a great blog for our community. I am always fascinated by native history having been a news reporter for the Seminole Tribe of Florida for four years. I learned a great deal about how advanced many of these ancient civilizations were and not surprised how far and wide the tribes travelled, exchanging and bartering with one another. I wrote about a Seminole wood carver who demonstrated how to use an atlatl he had made to show at culture day at the Big Cypress reservation. I recall him saying this was a weapon of his ancestors who roamed the southern United States 12,000 years ago. In another matter, I believe the Centenniel to be celebrated this year of 2013 is the 100th year that the City of Enumclaw has existed as an official entity. My reading of There Is Only One Enumclaw by Poppleton indicated it was quite an achievement after many fractious and controversial happenings, neighbor against neighbor, some businesses fighting it, and angry land disputes. In the end all came together and made peace. Will be interesting to read what you find out. Meanwhile I hope you will get in touch with the Cultural Program Coordinator Gary LaTurner who is organizing some pretty exciting historical events for the occasion. Also, I know that employee Trudy D'Armond has been putting together some historical vignettes for Mutual of Enumclaw about their role in the city's history.
John Anderson January 09, 2013 at 04:30 PM
Thanks for your comment, Susan. Yes, we incorporated in 1913, twenty-three years after Buckley did and after previous attempts here. Even then the vote in favor was a squeaker. It's hard to bring any group of people together without some disagreements, but what impressed me were all the cooperatives in early Enumclaw--the most for any place like this in the northwest: Farmers' Mutual (Mutual of Enumclaw), a cooperative to share the risk of barn and house fires among members; the Cooperative Creamery, to share the costs of processing and marketing; the Cooperative Fruit Growers; and the Rochdale co-op store. The Danish immigrants had known successful cooperatives in their old country and saw the value of collective action here, while the store was named after the location of a similar venture and society in Britain. It is also interesting that a narrative embedded in the City of Enumclaw's Comprehensive Plan (to 2022) features a resurgence of the cooperative idea. But more on that in future blogs. We still have to get Allen Porter and his wagon to the Plateau.
Jean Hoiland January 15, 2013 at 07:33 PM
Another great article thank you.

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